MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_01C4A634.4B4834B0" This document is a Single File Web Page, also known as a Web Archive file. If you are seeing this message, your browser or editor doesn't support Web Archive files. Please download a browser that supports Web Archive, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer. ------=_NextPart_01C4A634.4B4834B0 Content-Location: file:///C:/91529227/Bab2-gerbang.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" BAB II

BAB II

GERBANG LOGIKA

 

2.1. Logika= Positif dan Logika Negatif

        &= nbsp;   Dalam = sistem elektronika digita= l kita menggunakan 2 konstanta yaitu logika "0" dan logika"1". Pada rangkaian logika kedua konstanta tersebut akan = berupa taraf tegangan. Kedua taraf tegangan tersebut yaitu :

        &= nbsp;   - Taraf tegangan rendah ( low-level =3D L )=

        &= nbsp;   - Taraf tegangan tinggi ( high-level =3D H = )

        &= nbsp;   Jika <= span class=3DSpellE>taraf tegangan tinggi-H dinyatakan sebagai logika-1 dan taraf tegangan rendah dengan logika-0, <= span class=3DSpellE>maka disebut sebagai suatu penerapan "LOGIKA POSITIF".

        &= nbsp;   Jadi y= ang dimaksud dengan logika positif adalah suatu penerapan tegangan pada rangkaian logika, dimana tegangan yang lebih positif dinyatakan dengan logika "= ;1" dan tegangan yang <= span class=3DSpellE>lebih negatif dinyatakan dengan logika "0". Secara grafis dapat dinyata-kan <= span class=3DSpellE>sebagai beri= kut :

=             &nb= sp;            =            V(Volt)

=             <= span class=3DSpellE>Logika "1"&= nbsp;    5

 

=             <= span class=3DSpellE>Logika "0"&= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           t (sekon) &n= bsp;  

            =             &nb= sp;           0        &= nbsp; 

        &= nbsp;        Gambar= 2.1. Taraf tegangan pada penerapan Logika Positif.

&nb= sp;

        &= nbsp;   Sebaliknya bila taraf tegangan tinggi dinyatakan dengan logika "0&quo= t;, sedangkan taraf  tegangan rendah dinyatakan dengan logika "1&quo= t;, maka disebut suatu penerapan "logika negatif". Jadi yang dimaksud dengan "Logika Negatif" adalah suatu penerapan tegangan pada rangkaian logika, dimana tegangan yang lebih positif dinyatakan dengan logika "= ;0" dan tegangan yang <= span class=3DSpellE>lebih negatif dinyatakan dengan logika "1". Secara lebih jelasnya, penerapan= logika negatif ini dapat dilihat pada Gambar 2.2.,di bawah ini :

 

=             &nb= sp;            =            V(Volt)

=             <= span class=3DSpellE>Logika "0"&= nbsp;    5

 

=             <= span class=3DSpellE>Logika "1"&= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           t (sekon) &n= bsp;  

            =             &nb= sp;           0        &= nbsp; 

        &= nbsp;        Gambar= 2.2. Taraf tegangan pada penerapan Logika Negatif.

        &= nbsp;        Oleh karena itu, bila suatu rangkaian logika menggunakan "Logika = Positif" yang mempunyai output "0", jika hal tersebut diterapkan= pada "Logika Negatif" maka nilainya menjadi "1&= quot;. Sehingga dapat dinyatakan :

        &= nbsp;        - Logika positif =3D = NOT logika negatif

        &= nbsp;        - Logika negatif =3D = NOT logika positif

2.2. GERBANG NOT ( NOT-GATE )

=             &nb= sp;    Gerbang NOT : INVERTER, gerbang ini berfungsi sebagai pembalik. <= span class=3DSpellE>Bila input dari gerbang ini mempunyai LOGIKA "1", maka outputnya akan berlogika 0 atau bila inputnya adalah variabel A, maka outputnya adalah A, demikian juga sebaliknya.

        &= nbsp;        Inverter dari suatu variabel ditandai dengan simbo= l :

 


=             &nb= sp;            =    A        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            O        &= nbsp;         A

        &= nbsp;        input   = ;            &n= bsp;            = ;            &n= bsp;            = ;            &n= bsp;   output

        &= nbsp;        Gambar= 2.3. Simbol suatu Gerbang NOT.=

Adapun= tabel kebenaran untuk suatu gerbang NOT yang telah diilustrasi= kan pada gambar di atas, ditunjukkan pada Tabel.2.1. di bawah ini.

&n= bsp;

        &= nbsp;        Tabel = 2.1. Gerbang NOT (Inverter)

Input

Output

0<= /b>

1<= /b>

1<= /b>

0<= /b>

        &= nbsp;        Bila suatu input (masukan) diinvers sebanyak 2 kali (jungkir = balik) maka out-putnya akan<= /span> tetap sesuai dengan inputnya.

 

=             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;        A

=             &nb= sp;            =    A        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            O        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;  O        &= nbsp;     A =3D A

        &= nbsp;        input   = ;            &n= bsp;            = ;            &n= bsp;  output 1       =             &nb= sp;            =         output  2

        &= nbsp;        Gambar= 2.4. Simbol Gerbang NOT = Ganda (Double Inverter)

 

        &= nbsp;        Adapun= tabel kebenaran Gerbang NOT ganda yang diperlihatkan pada Gambar 2.4. di atas, secara lengkap dapat dilihat pada Tabel 2.2. berikut ini :

 

        &= nbsp;        Tabel.2.2. Gerbang NOT Ganda (= Double Inverter)

 


A

 

A

 

A =3D A

0

1

0

1

0

1

 

2.3. GERBANG AND ( AND-GATE )

        &= nbsp;        Gerbang AND sering juga disebut gerbang DAN, yaitu suatu gerbang logika yang mempunyai beberapa input = (masukan) dan hanya satu output (keluaran). Operasi dengan gerbang ini membentuk operasi "CONJUNCTION" atau Konjungsi. Operasi AND ditandai dengan * ( baca : dot ).

        &= nbsp;        Simbol rangkaian logikanya digambarkan sebagai berikut ini :<= /span>

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            A

        &= nbsp;        input   = ;            &n= bsp;            = ;            &n= bsp;            = ;    T =3D A * B       = output

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            B

        &= nbsp;        Gambar= 2.5. Gerbang AND untuk 2= masukan (A dan B)

        &= nbsp;        Adapun tabel kebenaran untuk Gerbang AND <= span class=3DSpellE>dua masukan sebagaimana tampak pada Gamabar 2.5. di atas, ditunjukkan <= span class=3DSpellE>secara lengkap pada Tabel 2.3. sebagai berikut :

        &= nbsp;        Tabel = 2.3. Gerbang AND dua masukan

A

B

T=3DA*B

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

&nb= sp;

        &= nbsp;   Kalau diterjemahkan ke dalam teknik listrik , maka akan diperoleh hubungan seri dari kedua kontak penghubung (= saklar, switch).

=             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;         A        &= nbsp;          B

input=       A* B        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       T      output

 

        &= nbsp;   Berdasarkan ilustrasi di atas, maka pada output T informasi akan = bernilai logika-1, hanya apabila kedua informasi input A <= span class=3DSpellE>dan B, masing-masing menggerakkan kontak A dan B menjadi tertutup.

=             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;         A

=             &nb= sp;            = A         = B

=           +        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;

=           -        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;    B

=           +        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p; T        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;   T

=           -

 

        &= nbsp; a).Rangkaian Aktual        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;    b). Rangkaian Setara (<= span class=3DSpellE>Ekivalen)

        &= nbsp; Gambar= 2.6. Ilustratif Rangkaian Gerbang AND dua masukan

 

        &= nbsp;   Lampu T hanya akan menyala jika kedua saklar A dan B pada gambar di atas menutup atau terhubung.

 

 

 

 

 

2.4. GERBANG-OR ( OR-GATE )

        &= nbsp;   Gerbang-OR disebut juga sebagai gerbang ATAU, yaitu suatu <= span class=3DSpellE>gerbang logika yang mempunyai beberapa input = dan hanya 1 buah keluaran (output).

        &= nbsp;   Operasi yang menggunakan = gerbang-OR membentuk operasi disjungsi. Operasi-OR ditandai dengan +. Adapun simbol untuk jenis operasi ini adalah sebagai berikut :

&nb= sp;

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            A

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;             = T =3D A + B

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            B

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            Gambar= 2.7. Simbol Gerbang-OR <= span class=3DSpellE>dua masukan

        &= nbsp;   Ilustrasi secara simbolis untuk gerbang-OR di atas, dalam teknik kelistrikan sangat identik dengan hubungan antara dua buah saklar atau switch yang dirangkai= kan secara paralel, seperti ditunjukkan pada Gambar 2.8. di ba= wah ini :

=             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;            =          A

 


=             &nb= sp;           +        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;           

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;             = B        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       T

=             &nb= sp;           -

 


        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;     Gambar= 2.8. Ilustrasi Rangkaian= Gerbang-OR dua masukan

        &= nbsp;   Terlihat bahwa Lampu T akan= menyala, bila salah satu atau kedua saklar A dan B menutup. Bila kedua saklar A dan B terbuka, maka lampu T akan padam. Adapun tabel kebenaran untuk gerbang-OR dua masukan A dan B seperti tampak pada Gambar di atas, secara lengkap dapat dilihat pada Tabel 2.4. di ba= wah ini :

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

        &= nbsp;   Tabel = 2.4. Gerbang-OR dua masukan

A

B

T=3DA+B

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

&nb= sp;

II.5 GER= BANG NAND ( NAND GATE )

        &= nbsp;   Gerbang NAND adalah gabungan antara gerbang AND dengan gerbang NOT atau gerbang AND yang mempunyai inverter pada outputnya. Oleh karena itu pengaruhnya terhadap hasil output adalah fungsi NOT dari gerbang AND.

SimbolB

        =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;            =     A* B        =                      =   T=3DA*B

<= ![if !vml]>        =             &nb= sp;            =   

&nb= sp;

        =             &nb= sp;   or        =             &nb= sp;     

<= ![if !vml]>        =       A        =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;    T=3DA* B

<= ![if !vml]>        =       B

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

 

&nb= sp;

&nb= sp;

 

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